sanding and the best tips for a perfect finish

Sanding and the best tips for a perfect finishing

Sanding: Wearing or smoothing of a surface with sandpaper or other abrasive material.

 

Origins of the sanding process

Sanding processes date back four millennia when sand was used for polishing in the Middle East. In its beginnings, loose sand was used, it was spread on the surface to be polished and it was repeatedly rubbed with a piece of wood or leather.

Later the known sandpaper and used today originated in the year 1,400 in Switzerland, where in a simple process crushed glass was adhered to a paper support to obtain an abrasive material. The sandpaper comes from the simple sandblasted cardboard that over time gave way to different varieties of this very useful tool.

Sanding means to smooth, polish, polish, or clean something by rubbing it with an abrasive object, usually sandpaper. Sanding is a critical task in any finishing job.

A good finish is impossible without a perfect sanding. "

proceso_de_lijado

How to use sandpaper?

The sanding a surface It is carried out by means of longitudinal movements on it, manual or by machine, in such a way that the granulated part of the sandpaper rub the area to be treated.

To sand surfaces, simply press the smooth face of the sandpaper with the hand on them although flat surfaces or jointer that help to make the necessary pressure.

Plane-manual

In addition, there are orbital sanders, in which sandpaper is attached to a plate that when you rotate the work done on the object with greater speed and efficiency.

A good sanding required time and be very attentive to details. 

Techniques of sanding by hand

The technique of hand sanding can be carried out through the application in wet or dry:

  • The hand sanding to water or humid

    It is performed by immersing the sand in the water to cook out of the remains of the sanding. The main advantage of the sanding the water is the fact that occur less dust, avoids the embozamiento and extends the useful life of the sandpaper. Allows you to obtain a surface finish is finer in comparison with the dry sanding.

The drawback of sanding the water resides in the need of having to clean the remnants of moisture from the surface so as not to affect the following stages of implementation of paintings.

  • The hand sanding in dry.

    This type of sanding, which is the most known and used, is performed directly on the surface. The dry sanding causes dust and particles for a good outcome in the process, it should go cleansing (usually with blowers) to prevent scratches, unwanted at the surface.  

hand sanding

Types of sandpaper for hand sanding 

Sanding by hand is very common and essential to many times in some objects with shapes, very intricate where we can not access automatically.

Hand sanding Abrastar proposed:

  • EMERY PAPER

Sheets of sandpaper for hand sanding are usually of paper although there are also in support of fabric. Particularly flexible and specified to withstand the wet sanding.

  1. Sheet abrasive paper STAR-WAT. Sheet of sandpaper dimensions 230×280 mm with support of high-quality, water-resistant, with exceptional flexibility. Manufactured with a special resin that minimizes the appearance of marks in the spiral in the wet sanding. Box of 50 units.

 

  1. Sheet abrasive paper KS-PRO. Sheet of sandpaper dimensions 230×280 mm. Manufactured on a support type-C (support very lightweight to support G very heavy) on aluminum oxide, and resin-cola. Box of 50 units.

 

sheets of sandpaper

  • SPONGES AND PLUGS ABRASIVE

Sponges and tacos with foam they are widely used for its great ability to adapt to complicated shapes thanks to its excellent flexibility. They are very versatile and easy to use. Generally classified in scales of the three measures of grain coarse, medium, fine, although there are some products with intermediate measures or special very fine.

How do we differentiate the studs of the sponges? Very easy tacos are thicker and have surface abrasive on the four sides , while the sponges only have sanded by one or two faces, and are thinner, so that adapt much better to any surface.

abrasive sponge

  • ROLLS OF SANDPAPER

In Abrastar we have a wide range of rolls abrasives in different qualities and brackets. Although they are specially prepared for use in sander automatic, the features more or less flexible and easy to cut are also used for hand sanding with extra strength, durability and flexibility than the sheets of sanding paper.

roll of emery

  • ROLLS OF FIBER MESH 

Rolls Abrastar fiber non-woven nylon are ideal for applications softened or satin after sanding.

The rolls of fiber or commonly called scouring pads are manufactured or woven by the threads of nylon intertwined without work more or less fine. We could not classify them exactly as sandpaper, but due to their usefulness in the treatment and sanding of surfaces has been included in this section.

The nylon fibers have an effect on surfaces in general different from that of sandpaper. The abrasive will lowering the workpiece by abrasion by dragging the material and lifting the hair or thread of stuff while and then what we got with the fiber mesh is lower and soften this repelo getting a better ending and final finish of the product.

 

roll fiber greenroll fiber redroll fiber grey

Selection of the type of sandpaper more appropriate 

Today there are a wide variety of types of abrasive papers that are specifically selected are used for a multitude of applications sanding on all surfaces. Choose the most appropriate for the different phases or stages of the work to be performed sanding will be of great importance

Some general examples of treated surfaces with sanding applications:

  • Sanding wood.

  • Sanding metal.

  • Sanding composites.

  • Sanding, painting and decorating.

  • Sanding glass.

  • Sanded leather.

  • Etc...

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Security measures are important in the process of sanding

  • To protect the view of particles safety glasses are appropriate.
  • Use of a respiratory mask for filtration of dust generated by the sanding.
  • For sanding with automatic machines we should not forget the safety measures common of all the electrical appliances (do not put them near sources of moisture or heat, do not pull on the cable, etc.).
  • The machine we have to keep it tightly with both hands during the sanding and you should turn it off for the exchange or replacement of sandpaper.
what type of sandpaper is the most suitable for wood

What type of sanding material for wood is the most suitable?

Treatment of sandpaper for wood

In the treatment of sanding on wood, or on any other surfaces the main aim is to remove and smooth out any imperfections, condition for a subsequent application of chemicals, sealants, and lacquers.

For an excellent final completion of the product itself, the sanding process is considered to be the most important step, and to take special care. Also, the correct choice of the abrasive that we use.

If we do not perform the process of sanding wood suitable, the final completion will be below the quality results you expect.

Remember that “NOT ANY ABRASIVE works FOR ANY SURFACE.”

sanding wood

RECOMMENDATIONS BASIC FOR A GOOD SANDING ON WOOD:

  • The pressure of the sanding should always be minimal both in manual and automatic, thus ensuring that our finishes are consistent.

If we exceed pressure will be generated areas, with shiny, polished but with a non-uniform roughness, which will result in colors that are not homogeneous in the later phase of dyeing or coloration. In the same way also due to excess pressure so we can find problems of anchoring of the varnish.

  • The movement of sanding should be as far as possible always in favor of the grain of the wood or on behalf of the effect that we want to give in the design and always bearing in mind that in a sense crossed the stripes caused would be more visible rising at the same time, the fiber of the wood.
  • Avoid sanding wood wet. The fibers of a wet wood-wet or are not raised or predisposed for easy removal during grinding. Get the wet sanding is a powder that will become a paste that embozará the abrasive quickly. If we are presented with a sanding of wood that has been previously moistened we should wait for that to dry completely, thus achieving the fibers are ericen, and is easier to cut.
  • Also very important and standard to follow for a good sanding of the wood would be the continuous cleaning of the dust that is being generated in the treated surface. This will avoid working on micro-particles that may mark or scratch the piece in the process.
  • And finally, another point to keep in mind for a good sanding this to detect when the abrasive is presenting signs of wear and tear. It is very important not to rush the abrasive and replace them at the time in which your performance or useful life is finished. The use of an abrasive worn will lead finishes are non-uniform and highly defective.

 

sandpaper wood

SANDPAPERS FOR WOOD ABRASTAR:

  • Formats of sandpapers for wood Abrastar with fabric support:

 

Quality

FORMATS
ROLLSDISKSNARROW BANDBROADBANDSPECIFICATIONS
ST230J X
K15F X
ALF632 X
K35F X
STX X X X X
JC122 X
K35X X X X
R350
X
R192 X X
R352 X
S27 X X X
S181 X X
ALF632 X

 

  • Formats of sandpapers for wood Abrastar with a support of paper:

 

QualityFormats 
RollsDisksNarrow bandBroadbandsheets
STG+XX
STGXX
STWXX
STRCXX
STRXXX
STRPXX
B322TXXXXX
KSPROXXX
KSPROVXX
SP+XXXX

 

  • Formats of sandpapers for wood Abrastar support film-velcro:

 

QualityFormats
RollsDisksNarrow BandBroadbandSheets
B322TVxxx
B322Txxx
L312Txxx
Cerastarxx
Starfinexx

 

Other abrasive products used in the treatment and sanding of wood:

-FIBER ABRASIVE

fiber abrasive

 

 

 

 

 

-ABRASIVE FOAM.

Abrasive sponge

 

 

From Abrastar we have a wide range of products in different formats and specific tools for sanding and treating the wood. Just choose the one that best suits the needs of your projects.

We are specialists in the sector WE ADVISE YOU.

tools sanding wood

 

abrastar belt sandpaper

Know all about Abrastar's sanding belts

Abrasive ABRASTAR we are specialists and manufacturers
in sandpaper strip as for professional use.
Over 35 years in the sector, advising professionals.

There are several expressions that are used in the professional field and diy to refer to the consumable abrasive. The names more common that we can find are band of sandpaper or belt abrasive, although it also used the terms of belt grinding or belt sanding.

We have the band of sandpaper would be the essential complement when we acquire a tool sander specific bands. We have as usual go well on the features of our new machine and compare it with the different models in the market (engine, power, endurance, speed, ergonomic, etc.), but the vast majority of the times we forget or we worry about the required features of the band of sandpaper for its proper functioning.

tipos_lija_de_banda

 

What essential features should I know of a band of sandpaper?

The basic features that we have to take into account to identify a sandpaper band are:

DIMENSIONS – PARTICLE SIZE – MEDIUM – TYPE BOARD

-DIMENSIONS:

Always detailed in millimeters the width and the length or development. Take either the extent of the band of sandpaper is essential for the work performed by the machine band is optimal.

-THE SIZE OF THE GRAIN OR PARTICLE SIZE:

Climbing number of grains according to european standard FEPA is:

* MACRO GRAIN: 16, 24, 36, 40, 50,6 0, 80, 100, 120, 150, 180, 220.

* MICRO GRAIN: 240, 280, 320, 400, 500, 600, 800, 1000, 1200,1500, 2000.

For the proper use of the works of sanding ABRASTAR advises:

  • For sanded aggressive, rough and calibrated 16, 24, 36, 40.
  • Shovel sanded bastos and brushed, 50, 60, 80.
  • For sanding review 100, 120, 150.
  • For fine sanding 180, 220, 240, 320, 400.
  • For a polished and high brightness. 500, 600, 800, 1000, 1500, 2000.

To properly use the stream of grains in our work is essential to get a good result and above all the perfect performance of the bands of sandpaper. In this election the grain with a size immediate superior will be able to continue to reduce the roughness that has caused the grain above. The recommendation optimum would be to use a sequence of particle size in a row, although it is normal to jump to the next second.

fabricacion_lija_de_banda

 

-SUPPORT:

It is another important variable to be taken into account. In Abrastar we have 3 types of brackets for the manufacturing of emery cloth band that would be in support of fabric , paper support and a support film.

In general concepts the more rigid it is a support of the band of sandpaper the result of performance is higher, increases their ability to plan for the surface and does not simulate the imperfections. Although not all applications can use the support more rigid as in some jobs the flexibility of the band of sandpaper is of vital importance in the treatment and adaptability.

The range of offers of media types in the market is very broad and you have to know how to choose the one that best suits our needs.

According to the type of work to make the media more appropriate would be:

  • SUPPORT “J”: Sandpaper bandwidth for smooth contours and profiles. Employ media fabric semiflexible cotton.
  • SUPPORT “X”: Sanding band sanding rough or intermediate processes of surfaces and edged.
  • SUPPORT “XY”: Sanding band, sanding and aggressive roughing of the surface and edging. Abrastar recommended fabrics rigid polyester and cotton. In the manufacturing process of this type of media, the cotton fibers have been impregnated with polyester resin for added strength.
  • SUPPORT “AND” or “YY”: Sanding band for sanded that require lubrication in wet. Abrastar recommended media fabrics rigid polyester.

-TYPES OF JOINTS:

In the manufacture of sandpaper bands we are in the part of the process where we take the union of the two extremes. To this union we call it together, and there are several types that are going to determine, according to the support of the band and the utility for which you want to use.

The type of board for sandpapers band is more typical of the overlap between themselves, reducing the mireral of the area of union and pasting. In these processes Abrastar pays special attention because in case of highlight, or thickness of the board will cause vibrations or breaks during the work of sanding. We talk about discounted especially controlled measured in microns.

sanding band abrastar

CHECK OUT OUR TYPES OF JOINTS 

What type of mineral is the most appropriate for our sanding band?

Choose the mineral for our band of sandpaper will always be conditioned by the type of material that we are going to sand it. Usually jobs are usually mechanical where the cutting speeds are high. For this reason, and due to its perfect combination of strength and hardness of the oxide of aluminum is the ore most universal employee to work on surfaces of wood and metal.

TABLE OF MOST COMMON MINERALS AND THEIR USES:

Type of MineralUse
Aluminum oxideWood, veneer, melamine, iron, leather.
Silicon carbideVarnishes, stone, marble, granite, ceramic, rubber, plastic, bronze, copper, brass, glass.
Zirconium Stainless steels, cast iron, aluminum, zamak.

 

On Abrastar we are manufacturers of bands of sandpaper wide and narrow with a wide range of media and grades for all types of surfaces.

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abrasivo y sus utilidades

What is an abrasive and how its utilities are?

The Royal Spanish Academy defines “abrasive -will” as:

  1. Belonging or relative to the abrasion.
  2. Said of a product, Which serves to abrade or Polish by friction, hard substances, such as metals, glass, etc...

The Spanish Royal Academy defines “abrasion” as:

  1. Action and effect of wearing down or rubbing away by friction
  2. Geological. Process of wear or destruction, produced in the earth's surface by external agents
  3. Med. Irritant action of purgatives energetic.

The etymological origin of the word abrasive comes from the old Latin, more exactly it comes from the word “abradêre” whose meaning is wearing. Hence arose the term “abrasion” that comes to be defined as the act and the effect by which one produces the wear and tear of something by the method of friction or friction.

Currently, the abrasives are used in almost all industrial sectors with manufacturing processes (woodworking, metalworking, construction, mechanical, automotive, marine, automotive, aviation, composite, etc...).

abrasives-band

 

The abrasive is a a working tool for the treatment of surfaces from the first manufacturing processes and preparation up to the most demanding process of final finishes, polished and high gloss.

Hence the importance of having the knowledge and knowing how to choose well our abrasive products that are classified into various categories and grades, and each of which is specific for each of the different manufacturing processes that may be open to us.

HOW DO YOU MEASURE THE PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF THE ABRASIVE?

The grain is the element that does the work of cutting and trimming and is classified by its size. In general we call an abrasive coarse-grained (more abrasive) useful for roughing, while a fine-grained (less abrasive) is classified for finishing and endings. The grit of an abrasive is in charge of classifying the size of the abrasive grain in numerical scale. The lower the number the more abrasive, while the greater number less abrasive, do not get confused!!!.

HOW DO YOU CLASSIFY THE TYPES OF ABRASIVE GRAINS?

Mainly into two general categories:

-ABRASIVE GRAINS NATURAL.-

Diamond, abrasive paper, sand, corundum and quartz.

-ABRASIVE GRAINS, MANUFACTURED.-

They are made with materials of aluminum oxide, silicon carbide, zirconium and ceramic materials in controlled processes.

The abrasive material is more hard that we can find is the diamond.

 

discos_abrasivos_diamante

CLASSIFICATION OF THE ABRASIVE ACCORDING TO THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE GRAIN:

There are two general types on the support:

-Distribution of open structure .-, in that between 30% and 60% of the support is coated abrasive grain, leaving large gaps between grains. It is used in jobs in which the accumulation of particles can create embozamiento of the abrasive causing deficiency of court.

-Distribution of closed structure .- in which the grain covering the entire surface of the support the abrasive. Recommended for use when there is desire for a smooth finish of the surface and the embozamiento not a problem.

DIFFERENT TYPES OF MEDIA FOR ABRASIVE:

And now to finish with the general concept and make it clear we speak of the bonds or sandpapers are commonly known, which is the material that holds the abrasive grain gluing. We use different types of binders and also have a measure of the resistance of the effort of the composite material of sand and grains with the stresses of grinding.

This classification is detailed for the scale of letters beginning with A, B, C, D,... and the most tender and ending for the X, y, And Z as the tougher measures.

qualities abrastar

 

RATING OUR CATALOGUE QUALITIES OF ABRASIVES BY TYPES OF SUPPORTS:

QUALITIES WITH STAND FABRIC:

Abrasive cloth STX:

With aluminum oxide mineral and grain semi-open. Special for hard wood and all kinds of soft wood.

Abrasive cloth K15F:

Very flexible. Especially suitable for sanding by hand, soft woods, painted surfaces and non ferrous metals.

Abrasive cloth K35F:

Flexible with support polyester X high resistance and waterproof for cleaning with water. Indicated for resinous wood and soft.

Abrasive cloth ALF632:

With flexible support. Particularly suitable in narrow bands for the sanding of moulding and hand sanding.

Abrasive cloth R192:

One of our standard products, ideal for applications in metal, steels, nickel alloys, plastics and hard woods.

Abrasive cloth K35F:

Product is semi-flexible for sanding wood, varnishes and soft metals. Excellent resistance and very good heat dissipation.

Abrasive cloth S27:

Support polyester and grain silicon carbide. Special for the calibration of plywood and parquet wood.

Abrasive cloth JC122:

Flexible product support J with carbide grit silicon and poly-cotton. Great for non ferrous metals and varnishes hard.

calidad_tela

 

Abrasive cloth S181:

Material polyester support X. water Resistant to scratches wet. Suitable for non-ferrous metal, glass and marble.

Abrasive cloth R350:

Product flexible polyester base. Especially suitable for metals, aluminum, steel, stainless varnishes.

Abrasive cloth STZ:

Zirconium. Indicated in the sanding materials very embozantes. Support is very resistant to stress. Special for cooperage.

Abrasive cloth R352:

Flexible product specially indicated for treatments in metals, aluminum, stainless steel.

Abrasive cloth R205:

Product of zirconium suitable for grinding cast iron, nickel alloy, stainless steel, and aluminum injection.

Abrasive cloth R203:

Zirconium with a cutting capacity exceptional. Speed of fast cutting to the automatic machines. Indicated for use robotic.

Abrasive cloth P976:

It is a product of grain ceramic 3rd generation with a layer of lubricant. For stainless steel, titanium, steel and high-alloy.

Abrasive cloth P395:

It is a product of grain agglomerated aluminum oxide. Material specially designed for use in automatic machines.

Abrasive cloth ST230J:

Product fabric is very flexible specific for all types of wood, painted surfaces and metals in general. Not suitable for bands.

QUALITY PAPER:

 

calidad_papel

Abrasive paper SP+ /STAR PLUS:

Paper-And anti-static. Product particularly suitable for the sanding of very hard surfaces.

Abrasive paper STG+ / STAR-GREY PLUS:

Support D anti-static, and 3rd layer of antiembozante. Suitable for varnishes soft and processes of finishing.

Abrasive paper STG / STAR-GREY:

With support And anti-static. Suitable for varnishes soft polyurethane and finishing of polyester.

Abrasive paper STG / STAR-GREY with support And anti-static:

Suitable for varnishes soft polyurethane and finishing of polyester.

Abrasive paper STW / STAR-WHITE:

Paper support, And anti-static antiembozante. Suitable for the sanding of polyester pigmented and U. V. soft.

Abrasive paper STRC Star-Network CLOSE KP80:

Ideal for painted walls, wood, auto, alloy, plastic, non ferrous metals. Antiembozante.

Abrasive paper-STR STAR-NETWORK:

Especially suitable for resin woods and hardwoods, as well as sanding boards rechapados. Anti-static.

Abrasive paper STRP Star-PLUS Network:

Suitable for sanding of soft wood, and melamine. Anti-static with a reduction in dust load on the work surface.

Abrasive paper B322T:

Ideal for decoration, wood, auto, alloy, plastic, non ferrous metals and aluminium. Paper type-C antiembozante.

Abrasive paper KSPRO:

Especially suitable for roll foam, sheets for decoration, and car. Paper support (B-C antiembozante.

Abrasive paper KSPROV:

Especially suitable for roll foam, and drives to work decoration, and car. Paper support (B-C antiembozante.

GRADES WITH VELCRO SUPPORT STRAPS

 

calidad_velcro

Abrasive paper B322TV:

Ideal for decoration, wood, auto, alloy, plastics, non ferrous metals. Antiembozante.

Abrasive paper B312T Star-Yellow velcro:

Especially suitable for sanding of varnishes, automotive, raw wood and painted. Antiembozante.

Abrasive velcro L312T:

Material highly versatile suitable for the sanding of metals, woods, varnishes and car. Support film with antiembozante.

Abrasive velcro CERASTAR:

Product support film and abrasive ceramic 100%. Especially suitable for hard materials.

Abrasive velcro STARFINE:

Product structure 3D pyramid and base foam with exceptional durability in comparison.

THE GOOD CHOICE IN PROCESSES OF TREATMENT OF SUPERFICES OF AN ABRASIVE IS GOING TO BE A DETERMINING FACTOR IN THE FINAL RESULTS DESIRED AND, OF COURSE, A BAD DECISION IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE WORK CAN BE QUITE EXPENSIVE.

polvo_abrasivos

 

en_GB
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